Originally posted on June 4, 2020.
This is today’s ABA when starting therapy with an autistic person, especially one who routinely engages in problem behavior.
Today’s ABA (applied behavior analysis) is about continually learning about the predilections of the autistic person being served so that preferred learning contexts can be developed en route to developing skills that can be appreciated by the autistic person as well as others. What follows is a guide for those implementing today’s ABA but written for those who are curious about what today’s ABA involves.
Learn by listening.
Ask the autistic person and/or ask people who know and love the autistic person about what he/she/they loves and hates. Be sure to review the love, aversion, and indifference towards activities, objects, furniture, contexts, and especially social interactions. Ask that person about the autistic person’s voice. How do they routinely communicate? And, especially, what are they communicating with their problem behavior? In other words, today’s ABA starts with asking questions, listening, and learning about the autistic person by people who know and love the autistic person.
Learn by creating joy.
From that conversation, put together a context in which the autistic person will be happy, relaxed, and engaged, one in which they will feel safe and in control. Enrich this space with all of the objects and activities that they love. Don’t be stingy with the stuff–more is better. Be sure to include all the things that they have lost in the past because they could not handle their removal or because they engaged with them in unique, stigmatizing, or disruptive ways.
Do not restrict in any way their freedom to do or move. Keep the door open. Follow their lead, physically and conversationally. Let the autistic person bring other materials to this context, remove materials from this context, reposition objects and people in this context, and essentially redesign it with either their actions or words.
Be sure to create clear signals of your submission (i.e., remove all signals of dominance—hovering too close or standing above them). During this time, avoid all acts of redirection, prompting, teaching, questioning, and language expansion. Be 100% available to the autistic person but do not add your “two-cents” to the situation unless asked. Reserve even praise unless the autistic person initiates by sharing what they are doing or just did with you and you are authentically impressed. Do not supervise the experience; share in it without taking it over in any way.
Respond to all attempts to communicate–this will happen the sooner you stop trying to lead the situation. Help them, for instance, not when they struggle, but when they indicate they would like assistance. Be earnest in your attempts to help even when you are not sure how to do so. Do not let any behavior towards you be ignored; react to their behavior in normal ways, just do not attempt inspire the next interaction—let them lead.
Continue revising the context and your manner of interaction until the autistic person does not want to be anywhere but there. Let them “vote with their feet.” Besides being dignifying and avoiding regrettable physical management, allowing them to leave the space provides good information. Leaving means something important is missing or something aversive is present. Keep working on building and refining the context until the autistic person is happy, relaxed, and engaged for an extended period. Recognize that happy, relaxed, and engaged looks very different for different autistic persons, which is why it is essential that someone who knows and loves the autistic person is present at this and the next step of the process.
In sum, teach the autistic person that you know them, you see them, you hear them, and you are there for them. This is the first and crucial step in today’s ABA.
Learn by empowering.
After you are confident that you can create a safe and engaging context and there is zero probability of any severe problem behavior in this context, it is time to empower the autistic person further and establish trust between you and the autistic person. It starts by clearly signaling that the prevailing conditions are about to change, and for the worse, but be clear and kind about it. Through normal actions and words, make it clear to the autistic person that you would like them to stop what they are doing, set aside their materials, move in a different direction, inhibit any self-stimulatory behavior, and transition to an area in which developmentally appropriate instruction/expectations will commence. Be sure this area of high expectations is set aside to some extent and populated with all the challenging activities and expectations reported by those who know and love this autistic person as important for his/her/their development.
If the autistic person shows any explicit sign of distress, discomfort, or protest in the form of either minor or severe problem behavior while transitioning from essentially their way to your way, acknowledge it immediately and relent. Let the autistic person return to their way and resume following their lead until he/she/they gets back to their version of happy, relaxed, and engaged for a short period.
Repeat this process until it is obvious that the autistic person is empowered and understands that they do not need to comply against their will and they do not need to escalate to escape or avoid the things they don’t want or obtain the things they do want. Teach them that you see them, hear them, and understand them even more now, despite the sometimes lack of precision or general acceptability of their communication. Teach them to trust you. In this period, be clear, be alert, be quick, and be consistent. From this resetting of the relationship, you will eventually restore balance and be able reintroduce the ambiguity and challenges of life without problem behavior returning.
Learn while teaching.
The path to a joyous lifestyle for families with autistic persons is paved with skills. The big pavers are play/leisure skills, communication, toleration, and cooperation. Once these are set, the branching paths are endless. Today’s ABA process continues by replacing the behavior revealed in the empowerment phase with an easier one that will be better received by others. The process involves gradually introducing ambiguity as to whether the new communication skill will work and by stretching the periods of cooperation. The pace and aims of this treatment process are continually informed by feedback provided by the autistic person, both in terms of what they say and do. Gone are the days of working through problem behavior and negative emotional responses—those are indictors that the treatment process needs to be adjusted, and not at the team meeting, but at that moment.
This treatment process is one in which the starting point is a happy, relaxed, and engaged autistic person. The themes of I see you, I hear you, I understand you, and I am here for you persist throughout the entire process. It bears repeating that there is no obligation to teach while children are upset in any way or under any duress. Hasty efforts at promoting compliance or assessing the developmental status of an autistic person are not championed in this process. That which is championed is establishing trust, engagement, authenticity, and agency. Cooperation in shared experiences follows. Acknowledged in this process is that skills will be learned both during therapist-, teacher-, and parent-led times as well as during times in which the autistic person is leading. Also recognized is the understanding that developmental assessment is best undertaken once trust and persistence in difficult tasks has been established.
Today’s ABA is trauma-informed. It is to be assumed that any person in the care of a behavior analyst for problem behavior has experienced multiple adverse events, with many exceeding the criteria for acknowledging that trauma has been experienced. By learning through listening; by enriching therapeutic contexts; by building and maintaining trust; by following one’s lead; by relying on personalized contexts in which people are happy, relaxed, and engaged; by listening to communication bids; by not working people through noncompliance or emotional duress; by allowing people to walk away; by making decisions based on performance; and by teaching from joy; today’s ABA is trauma-informed.
Our world, our country, and yes, our little field of ABA are at all at their own crossroads. The time to reconsider the status quo is now, whether it be as mundane as how to work in an office and socialize in restaurants or as profound as dismantling systemic racism. Our issues in ABA are somewhere in between but I daresay that our issues share challenges associated with getting back to work in the midst of the coronavirus and addressing injustices for people of color, especially black people in America. Let’s learn from others, especially those expert in public health policy, human rights, and criminal justice as we make our way. But let us not wait any longer to get on the right side of history.
Ours is not to dominate but to de-escalate or better yet prevent escalation in the first place. Ours is not to coerce (thank you Murray Sidman!) but to listen, learn, guide, and coach. Ours is not to redirect, restrain, or merely manage and modify. Ours is to understand, share, and shape. Ours is to prioritize safety, rapport, and the televisibility of what we do above all else. We have proven that meaningful outcomes can follow when we prioritize these things (see www.practicalfunctionalassessment.com ).
To those who do not know this as ABA or who downright despise ABA: I hear you and I understand where the confusion or hatred comes from. I acknowledge that our field has been associated with wrongs on its journey of helping autistic people and members of underserved populations (i.e., those with intellectual disabilities). Our collective attempts at helping are better now than they were, and both research and practice reveal to me that behavior analysts doing better is continuing. I also recognize that improvement is not inevitable just because we embrace a form of scientific method. Values-based movements have been displaced from ABA in the name of science for as long as ABA has been in existence. This is a sad and uncomfortable truth, but one within our power to address if we listen to the voices of dissent that have been marginalized for too long.
ABA has the potential to inflict trauma, and it has the potential to alleviate trauma. I don’t want to wait for some horrific incident being recorded for fundamental change to take place. I have been attempting to correct my mistakes and improve the way I do ABA through research, authentic practice, consulting, and especially listening to other voices outside my choir for many years. I won’t make excuses for my behavior or that of other BCBAs. I simply apologize. I apologize for not doing more, saying more, pushing more, or disrupting more. Consider this a step in the direction towards self-awareness, improvement, transparency, accountability, and an obvious commitment to protecting the rights of those we serve. I hope you will join me on this quickening walk towards a more perfect ABA to help families of autistic persons whose lives are negatively impacted by problem behavior.
* Thanks to Dr. Anthony Cammilleri for his suggestions and encouragement with respect to this paper.
34 thoughts on “A Perspective on Today’s ABA from Dr. Hanley”
You know I share your views. Thank you for being my voice. I’m sure JABA will be more than happy to publish. If they’re not, I’m working on a paper entitled: ‘Extinction of Problem Behavior Maintained by Positive and Negative Social Reinforcement: Procedures that are no longer necessary’. Want to think along?
Greg this is an absolutely beautiful statement that moved me so emotionally. I am proud to have been one of your and Rachel’s students. Sending so much love to you and your work.
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Thank you for setting such a great example in our field.
Can I share this with my students in Brazil?
This is a great article and I wish all parent come across this and read it. It is very sad that you don’t deal with parents who know more about their kids. I tried approaching your organization and was said you only work with school districts. That is not very encouraging to parents who invest their time in their kids.
There are lot of desperate parents who need good BCBA to work with their kids and make a difference in their kids life.
Respect what you do and have heard great things about your work. I sincerely wish a lot more kids could avail the benefit of your knowledge.
Thank you so much for this article!
I prefer he not refer to individuals with autism as ‘autistic person’. It sets us back decades and dehumanizes individuals who are more than just a label. The intent of this article, from an obviously great in the field, is well received and overdue.
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Many individuals with autism in recent years have been very vocal about their preference to be referred to as “autistic” instead of a “person with autism.” Of course, each person may have their own preferences. I had also always used the phrase “person with autism” until recently when many people shared that their autism diagnoses is integral to their identity and, in fact, they find the term “person with autism” as dismissing their autistic self. Long story, short, each person should be able to share their preference. For those who cannot share their preferences, perhaps asking the parents or caregivers who love them what label they use in their home?
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Actually, the vast majority of “people with autism” prefer “autistics”. They don’t like person first language which has been the norm for many years.
That is a view held by many. Interestingly enough, the neurodiverse themselves prefer the term autistic. I believe that’s why it’s being used here.
Hi there, BCaBA here!
A common grievance from those within the Autistic Community is actually the use of person-first language in the professional and academic settings. Many autistic people prefer the terms (i.e., identity-first language) Dr. Hanley is using because, well, they identify as autistic! A blind person would be unlikely to self-describe as “I’m a person with blindness.” A Black person would certainly not say “I’m a person with Blackness.” If we’re going to provide the ABA Dr. Hanley is describing here, then we must listen to the voices of the population we serve. This means using their preferred vernacular and lifting up their voices rather than worrying about tradition or what’s “appropriate” to us as neurotypical individuals. Remember, the autistic child is always Number One! And that child will become an adult. And that child has a right to choose their identity whether or not they have the language to tell it to us (non-speaking does not mean non-understanding).
Thank you for your authenticity and for dedicating yourself to continuous improvement and self-awareness. Flawed humans don’t “do” science perfectly. Your gentle encouragement shakes the status quo in the field in a powerful way while forcing all of us to look long and hard in the mirror.
I am in very much in agreement with the message, although I am surprised that person first language isn’t used (i.e. individual with Autism, rather than Autistic person).
Amanda. Thanks for the note. I continue to use FPL in journals due to the requirements, but in any non peer reviewed work I rely on place autism first based in recommendations in the advocacy community. I always put the person in front of any psychiatric or educational diagnosis but sensory impairments and autism are framed differently for me. There has been much written in this and there is no agreement just personal and defensible decisions. Best, Greg
Very useful article. Congratulations Greg
You should really educate parents. Good ABA can make miracles but bad ABA can create trauma not only for kids but also parents.
No kid should be treated just based on diagnosis. If all BCBA have an holistic approach the prognosis of the kids in spectrum will be better.
It is time some changes are made in ABA industry and schools.
I just listened to your podcast on Behavioral Observations #94 with Matt. It was 2 hours long and packed with information. I found myself still wanting to learn more from you and have signed up for this publication. Thank you for all the work you do. I’ve been in the field of serving individuals with disabilities who want to achieve employment for over 20 years and a new student to ABA. So much to learn!
Your paper deeply resonates with me. I am the parent of an autistic son and have worked with individuals with an autism diagnosis for several years, but have had a complicated relationship with the field of ABA. I have listened to many voices expressing the trauma they experienced during ABA sessions as children, and I have worked as an early childhood mental health professional within a trauma informed program and have embraced that model. Yet, I understand the powerful impact that ABA can have on the lives of individuals and families of people who engage in behaviors that serve as barriers to accessing many things in life. I am now very close to meeting the requirements to sit for the BACB exam, but it has been a long haul as I have left the field a few times out of a desire to empower autistic people rather than traumatize! Your paper gives me hope that the field of ABA is changing for the better.
Thank you for your powerful note, and congrats on being able to sit for the exam. You are not alone in struggling with how to apply learning principles humanely, but it sounds like you have had the necessary experiences to do so. I hope you will be able to lead others towards a patient and humble version of ABA.
Thank you for write about this. I am Mom of a autistic child, and I loved to read this article
Can I share this with other mothers in Brazil?
Thank you for the kind note, and please do share with other mothers/parents in Brazil.
Hi Catherine, my colleague, Dr. Cammilleri facilities and posted a version translated into Portuguese. Feel free to distribute to parents/professionals in Brazil.
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I was sent this article by a colleague. As someone deeply committed to social justice and human rights and also someone who has worked in the field of community mental health (and education as well) for almost 30 I concur. I would argue that much of what Dr. Hanley writes is true for the entire mental health field based on deceased of working with people with lived experience. My experience is reflected in human rights based documentaries on institutional mental health such as “Crazywise” I would,therefore, paraphrase his last statement to say “(human rights) values-based movements have been displaced from (clincial psychology) in the name of science for as long as (clinical psychology) has been in existence. This is a sad and uncomfortable truth, but one within our power to address if we listen to the voices of dissent that have been marginalized for too long.”
Amazing. Truth, courage, and compassion. .This should a must read for any analyst or person who is in the helping/teaching field. Passing along to team members. Been writing about a model with similar ideas and how to ensure everyone experiences something positive and meaningful. It’s up to us to show others and create a community that reinforces and models these values. Thank you.
I absolutely love this article.
I wanted to ask if it would be okay for me to use this article (I teach RBT courses) in the Ethics portion. All credit would of course be given.
Thanks for the nice note Rosangela. Please do share with your students/trainees.
This gives me so much hope. Thank you!
I’ve only recently returned to the field but this is the approach I’ve felt was needed even before I had your words to describe it. My approach with the kids I work with – if they aren’t happy to see us every day, clearly we are failing somewhere, and we need to fix it.
I passed my exam in August and just got my first “you’re part of a terrible field” comment on facebook.
In response, I validated their concerns, referenced historical context, gave a brief description of today’s ABA linked this article.
A year ago I would have either deleted the comment or replied with 100 reasons why that’s not true.
Thanks for modeling a better way to be. 🙂
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